This grant supported a Space Shuttle experiment on the effects of microgravity on moss cells. Moss provides a rich system for gravitational and spaceflight research. The early phase of the moss life cycle consists of chains of cells that only grow only at their tips. In the moss Ceratodon purpureus these filaments (protonemata) grow away from gravity in the dark, in a process called gravitropism. The tipmost cells, the apical cells, contain heavy starch-filled bodies called amyloplasts that probably function in g-sensing and that sediment within the apical cell. The SPM-A (Space Moss aka SPAM) experiment flew in November - December, 1997 on STS-87 as part of the Collaborative US Ukrainian Experiment (CLTE). The experiment was accommodated in hardware purpose-built by NASA KSC and Bionetics and included Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFU) and BRIC-LEDs. Together, this hardware allowed for the culture of the moss on agar in commercial petri dishes, for unilateral illumination with red light of varying intensity, and for chemical fixation in situ. The key findings of the spaceflight were quite unexpected. Neither the orientation of tip-growth nor the distribution of amyloplasts was random in microgravity.